Day 351~366

Popped up to Penshaw’s Monument this evening, as I’d read they have a new cost efficient LED lighting system for it.  It used to be lit up with static yellow lamps, but now the colours move around the monument, tried to get them all in but even on a long exposure I missed getting the green in!

Day 243 & 244

    The addition of colourants to foods is thought to have occurred in Egyptian cities as early as 1500 BC, when candy makers added natural extracts and wine to improve the products’ appearance. During the Middle Ages, the economy in the European countries was based on agriculture, and the peasants were accustomed to producing their own food locally or trading within the village communities. Under feudalism, aesthetic aspects were not considered, at least not by the vast majority of the generally very poor population. This situation changed with urbanization at the beginning of the Modern Age, when trade emerged—especially…

Day 242~366

Colour blindness, also known as colour vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see colour or differences in colour. Colour blindness can make some educational activities difficult. Buying fruit, picking clothing, and reading traffic lights can also be more challenging. Problems, however, are generally minor and most people adapt. People with total colour blindness may also have decreased visual acuity. The most common cause of colour blindness is due to a fault in the development of one or more of the three sets of colour sensing cones in the eye. Males are more likely to be colour blind than females…

Day 241~366

A colouring book is a type of book containing line art to which a reader may add colour using crayons, coloured pencils, marker pens, paint or other artistic media. Traditional colouring books and colouring pages are printed on paper or card. Some colouring books have perforated edges so their pages can be removed from the books and used as individual sheets. Others may include a story line and so are intended to be left intact. Paint books and colouring books emerged in the United States as part of the “democratization of art” process, inspired by a series of lectures by…

Day 240~366

In fruit & veg different colours are caused by varying plant pigments that add nutritive value; each colour family has specific health benefits. The deeper the colouring, the more effective the nutrient. Red colouring comes from the plant pigments, either lycopene or anthocyanins. Lycopene, which colours, among others, tomatoes and watermelon, is most touted for its cancer-fighting properties — especially prostate cancer in men. Anthocyanins provide antioxidants, which protect cells and also guard against heart damage, and are particularly effective against colon cancer. They are found in many red berries. Orange- and yellow-toned fruits and veggies — encompassing most citrus…

Day 239~366

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. The paint tube was invented in 1841 by portrait painter John Goffe Rand, superseding pig…

Day 238~366

The first layer of the earth’s crust, consists of about 10 miles of rock and loose materials. Underneath the continents, the crust is almost three times as thick as it is under the oceans. The ingredients used to make the Earth’s crust are complex. The basic ingredients are known as elements. There are 90 known elements that exist in the Earth’s crust. These elements combine with one another in a number of natural ways, creating molecules known as minerals. There are around 3,700 known minerals found in the Earth’s crust, with dozens of new minerals being discovered each and every…

Day 237~366

The process of glass blowing is long , hot, and arduous and would take far too long to write about here, but I can heartily recommend visiting a glass blowing factory and seeing it in action if you ever get the chance. Glass colouring and colour marking may be obtained by the addition of colouring ions,by precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glasses such as “gold ruby”or red “selenium ruby”), by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored…

Day 236~366

Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings and sea shells, as well as certain minerals. It is often created by structural coloration (microstructures that interfere with light). The word iridescence is derived in part from the Greek word ἶρις îris (gen. ἴριδος íridos), meaning rainbow, and is combined with the Latin suffix -escent, meaning “having a tendency toward.” Iris in turn derives from the goddess Iris of Greek mythology, who is the…