Day 236~366

Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings and sea shells, as well as certain minerals. It is often created by structural coloration (microstructures that interfere with light).
The word iridescence is derived in part from the Greek word ἶρις îris (gen. ἴριδος íridos), meaning rainbow, and is combined with the Latin suffix -escent, meaning “having a tendency toward.” Iris in turn derives from the goddess Iris of Greek mythology, who is the personification of the rainbow and acted as a messenger of the gods. Goniochromism is derived from the Greek words gonia, meaning “angle”, and chroma, meaning “colour”.

Nacre also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls. It is strong, resilient, and iridescent.

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Day 235~366

Sea shells are formed by the process of bio-mineralization where living organisms produce inorganic solids. Sea shells are the protective layers of marine animals called molluscs and other sea animals.
The colour that a sea shell has is not just to make the shell look pretty. It often acts as a camouflage, hiding these small animals from the predators that hunt them. The different shell colouring and patterns is even a means by which different species communicate with each other. Impurities like metabolic waste products that are present when the shell is being formed, gives the shell a different colour. Even what these little animals eat affect the colour of their shells. The food that the mollusc eats causes the little animal to produce pigments in the mantle of the epithelium of the mollusc. If the pigment is secreted continuously it creates a spiral or radial band but if it is periodic the shell develops sports or flecks.

Shells that are red in colour usually have carotene or pterodines in them. Brown and black hues are found in shells that have melanin in them. Some shell fish can even change their colour to hide on the seabed when predators are near.

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Day 234~366

A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument in which bits of glass, held loosely at the end of a rotating tube, are shown in continually changing symmetrical forms by reflection in two or more mirrors set at angles to each other. A kaleidoscope operates on the principle of multiple reflection, where several mirrors are placed at an angle to one another. Typically there are three rectangular mirrors set at 60° to each other so that they form an equilateral triangle, but other angles and configurations are possible. The 60° angle generates an infinite regular grid of duplicate images of the original, with each image having six possible angles and being a mirror image or an unreversed image.

As the tube is rotated, the tumbling of the coloured objects presents varying colours and patterns. Arbitrary patterns show up as a beautiful symmetrical pattern created by the reflections.

Not easy to photograph through the tiny triangle, and these don’t really do justice to what the eye can see.

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Day233~366

A colour wheel or colour circle is an abstract illustrative organization of colour hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colours, secondary colours, tertiary colours etc. The arrangement of colours around the colour circle is often considered to be in correspondence with the wavelengths of light, as opposed to hues, in accord with the original colour circle of Isaac Newton. Modern colour circles include the purples, however, between red and violet. Colour scientists and psychologists often use the additive primaries, red, green and blue; and often refer to their arrangement around a circle as a colour circle as opposed to a colour wheel.

Making a colour circle in photoshop is a royal PIA and more time consuming than I expected, life is too short, so I took my shots of crayons into the iPad and used an app which had an 8 segment template to drop a photo into each segment. Couldn’t find one with 6 or 12, which would have been more accurate, but you get the drift with this.
These are the crayons I keep for the grandkids to colour in with.

Day 232~366

How do flowers get their colours? Why are roses red and violets blue? People always admire the beautiful colours of flowers in bloom but rarely does anyone know the perfect science that goes into the colour production of one of the earth’s greatest natural beauties.

The colour of flowers, such as the red in roses and yellow in marigolds, are found in pigments that are decided upon in the hereditary genome of the plant. Flower colours of red, pink, blue and purple come mainly from the pigments called anthocyanins, which are in the class of chemicals called flavanoids (what gives plants their colour). Other pigments are carotenoids, found in tomatoes and carrots, that provide yellow, red and orange in the plastids. Chlorophyll is the most well known pigment, providing all that green you see in leaves and foliage.
Flowers that are bright in colour are meant to attract birds, bees and other insects in order to help the plants reproduce. Bright colours or dull colours are fixed in the genetics of a flower. If a plant needs to reproduce with the help of the birds and the bees – the genetics will make the flowers have bright colours to attract the animals.
In addition, if the pollination and reproduction are made this way, the fruits of the plant will be sweet and pleasant tasting. If reproduction through pollination is done by way of wind and air – the pigments of the plant will be inconspicuous and dull with bad tasting fruit.

(info from Proflowers.com)

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Day 231~366

The colour brown is a serious, down-to-earth colour signifying stability, structure and support.

Relating to the protection and support of the family unit, with a keen sense of duty and responsibility, brown takes its obligations seriously. It encourages a strong need for security and a sense of belonging, with family and friends being of utmost importance.

In the meaning of colours, brown is the colour of material security and the accumulation of material possessions.

The colour brown relates to quality in everything – a comfortable home, the best food and drink and loyal companionship. It is a colour of physical comfort, simplicity and quality. Especially if you’re a cat.

From a negative perspective it can also give the impression of cheapness and stinginess in certain circumstances.

Brown is friendly and approachable. It is loyal, trustworthy and dependable in a practical and realistic way.

In colour psychology, brown is honest, genuine and sincere. It relates to the hardworking, the industrious and reliable, with both feet planted firmly on the ground. Unless you’re a cat 🙂

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Day 230~366

Are Black & White colours?

Are black and white colours when generated as light?

1. Black is the absence of colour (and is therefore not a colour)

Explanation:
When there is no light, everything is black. Test this out by going into a photographic dark room. There are no photons of light. In other words, there are no photons of colours.

2. White is the blending of all colours and is a colour.

Explanation:
Light appears colourless or white. Sunlight is white light that is composed of all the colours of the spectrum. A rainbow is proof. You can’t see the colours of sunlight except when atmospheric conditions bend the light rays and create a rainbow. You can also use a prism to demonstrate this.

Fact: The sum of all the colours of light add up to white. This is additive colour theory.

Are black and white colours when they exist as pigments or as molecular colouring agents?

1. Black is a colour. (Chemists will confirm this!)
Here’s a simple way to show how black is made: Combine all three primary colors (red yellow and blue) using a liquid paint or you even food coloring. You won’t get a jet black, but the point will be clear. The history of black pigments includes charcoal, iron metals, and other chemicals as the source of black paints.

2. White is not a colour.
… but …. in some cases you could say that white is a colour..

The grey area:
Technically, pure white is the absence of colour. In other words, you can’t mix colours to create white. Therefore, white is the absence of colour in the strictest sense of the definition.

However, when you examine the pigment chemistry of white, ground-up substances (such as chalk and bone) or chemicals (such as titanium and zinc) are used to create the many nuances of white in paint, chalk, crayons etc. It’s worth noting that white paper is made by bleaching tree bark (paper pulp). Therefore, you could say that white is a colour in the context of pigment chemistry.

So there you have it, they are and they are not.

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Day 229~366

The meaning of colour 6~Pink
Pink is a combination of the color red and white, a hue that can be described as a tint. It can range from berry (blue-based) pinks to salmon (orange-based) pinks. Its symbolism is complex and its popularity is subject to so many influences.
Depending on your age and culture, you may remember pink Cadillacs, pink flamingos, Pink Floyd, the Pink Panther, and the pink triangles of the Third Reich (which were used to identify male homosexuals).
In almost every culture, one stereotype emerges: pink is associated with girls, blue with boys. Unfortunately, there is no consensus of opinion on its origin.

The origin of the English term “pink” is as valuable as any discourse on symbolism. Here are some interesting analyses:

In English, the word “pink” could be derived from the Dutch flower pinken dating back to 1681. The flower’s name could have originally been “pink eye” or “small eye.” Another possibility is the verb “to pink” – to prick or cut around the edges, as with pinking shears. The jagged petals of the flower looked as though they had been cut, thus explaining why it became known as the “pink.” (Jean Heifetz, When Blue Meant Yellow, p 110)

In colloquial language, to be “tickled pink” describes a state of joy, a “pink slip” is a notice that you’ve been fired from your job, to be “in the pink” suggest good fortune and health, and a “pinko” is a person who is extremely liberal, a socialist or a communist.

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Day 228~366

The meaning of colours 5~Blue

Blue has more complex and contradictory meanings than any other color. These can be easily explained by pinpointing by the specific shade of blue.
Bright blue: cleanliness, strength, dependability, coolness
(The origin of these meanings arise from the qualities of the ocean and inland waters, most of which are more tangible.)

Light (sky) blue: peace, serenity, ethereal, spiritual, infinity
(The origin of these meanings is the intangible aspects of the sky.)

Most blues convey a sense of trust, loyalty, cleanliness, and understanding. On the other hand, blue evolved as symbol of depression in American culture. “Singing the blues” and feeling blue” are good examples of the complexity of color symbolism and how it has been evolved in different cultures.

Blue’s global similarities are significant:

Blue is the #1 favorite color of all people.

53% of the flags in the world contain blue.

Blue is the most commonly used color in corporate identity.

A dark blue suit is professional business attire.

Blue jeans are worn all over the world.

Aristocracy is blue-blooded in all European languages.

Unique Meanings of Blue in Different Cultures

Greeks believe that blue wards off “the evil eye.

The English “to feel blue” has no equivalent in other languages while in German “blau sein” (literally: to be blue) means to be drunk or in Russian “голубой” (literally: light blue) means to be homosexual.

Dark blue is the color of mourning in Korea.

The god Krishna has blue skin.

Shades of blue are described as shallow or deep instead of light or dark in China.

Blue is for a baby girl; pink for a baby boy in Belgium.

“Prince Charming” is called “The Blue Prince” in Italy and Spain.

(info from Colour Matters)

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and because she was there…

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