Day 239~366

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. The paint tube was invented in 1841 by portrait painter John Goffe Rand, superseding pig…

Day 238~366

The first layer of the earth’s crust, consists of about 10 miles of rock and loose materials. Underneath the continents, the crust is almost three times as thick as it is under the oceans. The ingredients used to make the Earth’s crust are complex. The basic ingredients are known as elements. There are 90 known elements that exist in the Earth’s crust. These elements combine with one another in a number of natural ways, creating molecules known as minerals. There are around 3,700 known minerals found in the Earth’s crust, with dozens of new minerals being discovered each and every…

Day 237~366

The process of glass blowing is long , hot, and arduous and would take far too long to write about here, but I can heartily recommend visiting a glass blowing factory and seeing it in action if you ever get the chance. Glass colouring and colour marking may be obtained by the addition of colouring ions,by precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glasses such as “gold ruby”or red “selenium ruby”), by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored…

Day 236~366

Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings and sea shells, as well as certain minerals. It is often created by structural coloration (microstructures that interfere with light). The word iridescence is derived in part from the Greek word ἶρις îris (gen. ἴριδος íridos), meaning rainbow, and is combined with the Latin suffix -escent, meaning “having a tendency toward.” Iris in turn derives from the goddess Iris of Greek mythology, who is the…

Day 235~366

Sea shells are formed by the process of bio-mineralization where living organisms produce inorganic solids. Sea shells are the protective layers of marine animals called molluscs and other sea animals. The colour that a sea shell has is not just to make the shell look pretty. It often acts as a camouflage, hiding these small animals from the predators that hunt them. The different shell colouring and patterns is even a means by which different species communicate with each other. Impurities like metabolic waste products that are present when the shell is being formed, gives the shell a different colour….

Day 234~366

A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument in which bits of glass, held loosely at the end of a rotating tube, are shown in continually changing symmetrical forms by reflection in two or more mirrors set at angles to each other. A kaleidoscope operates on the principle of multiple reflection, where several mirrors are placed at an angle to one another. Typically there are three rectangular mirrors set at 60° to each other so that they form an equilateral triangle, but other angles and configurations are possible. The 60° angle generates an infinite regular grid of duplicate images of the original,…

Day233~366

A colour wheel or colour circle is an abstract illustrative organization of colour hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colours, secondary colours, tertiary colours etc. The arrangement of colours around the colour circle is often considered to be in correspondence with the wavelengths of light, as opposed to hues, in accord with the original colour circle of Isaac Newton. Modern colour circles include the purples, however, between red and violet. Colour scientists and psychologists often use the additive primaries, red, green and blue; and often refer to their arrangement around a circle as a colour circle…

Day 232~366

How do flowers get their colours? Why are roses red and violets blue? People always admire the beautiful colours of flowers in bloom but rarely does anyone know the perfect science that goes into the colour production of one of the earth’s greatest natural beauties. The colour of flowers, such as the red in roses and yellow in marigolds, are found in pigments that are decided upon in the hereditary genome of the plant. Flower colours of red, pink, blue and purple come mainly from the pigments called anthocyanins, which are in the class of chemicals called flavanoids (what gives…

Day 231~366

The colour brown is a serious, down-to-earth colour signifying stability, structure and support. Relating to the protection and support of the family unit, with a keen sense of duty and responsibility, brown takes its obligations seriously. It encourages a strong need for security and a sense of belonging, with family and friends being of utmost importance. In the meaning of colours, brown is the colour of material security and the accumulation of material possessions. The colour brown relates to quality in everything – a comfortable home, the best food and drink and loyal companionship. It is a colour of physical…