How do flowers get their colours? Why are roses red and violets blue? People always admire the beautiful colours of flowers in bloom but rarely does anyone know the perfect science that goes into the colour production of one of the earth’s greatest natural beauties.
The colour of flowers, such as the red in roses and yellow in marigolds, are found in pigments that are decided upon in the hereditary genome of the plant. Flower colours of red, pink, blue and purple come mainly from the pigments called anthocyanins, which are in the class of chemicals called flavanoids (what gives plants their colour). Other pigments are carotenoids, found in tomatoes and carrots, that provide yellow, red and orange in the plastids. Chlorophyll is the most well known pigment, providing all that green you see in leaves and foliage.
Flowers that are bright in colour are meant to attract birds, bees and other insects in order to help the plants reproduce. Bright colours or dull colours are fixed in the genetics of a flower. If a plant needs to reproduce with the help of the birds and the bees – the genetics will make the flowers have bright colours to attract the animals.
In addition, if the pollination and reproduction are made this way, the fruits of the plant will be sweet and pleasant tasting. If reproduction through pollination is done by way of wind and air – the pigments of the plant will be inconspicuous and dull with bad tasting fruit.
(info from Proflowers.com)